Papers and Talks > Performance Management

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    A Conceptual Model of Service Quality [pdf]


    Based on exploratory studies of service such as executive interviews and focus groups in four different service businesses the authors propose a conceptual model of service quality indicating that consumers’ perception toward a service quality depends on gaps existing in organizations serving consumer environments. The magnitude and the direction of each gap will affect the service quality.

    This paper contains the first version of the "gaps" model, which describes five gaps. Later refinements added more detail, and defined two more gaps.

    By A. Parasuraman, V.A. Zeithaml, and L.L. Berry. Journal of Marketing, Vol. 49, Fall 1985

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    E-Commerce Response Time: A Reference Model [pdf]


    This paper presents a framework that describes all the components that make up the response time of an e-commerce application. Understanding this fundamental framework is the key to implementing responsive e-commerce systems.

    The paper discusses examples of how e-commerce application response times can be improved in three ways: by reducing the overall number of components, by speeding up individual components, and by moving some components off the synchronous response time path.

    By Chris Loosley, Richard L. Gimarc and Amy C. Spellmann. Originally presented at CMG 2000

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    Fundamentals of Internet Measurement: A Tutorial [pdf]


    Many Internet users need to understand how to measure Internet traffic and performance. The primary focus of this tutorial is the global Internet, and ways of measuring, analyzing, and reporting the services provided to a user's network via the Internet. Some sections apply to measuring any network that uses the TCP/IP protocol suite, including a private network, or intranet.

    By Nevil Brownlee (CAIDA) and Chris Loosley (CMG). First published in the CMG Journal of Computer Resource Management, Issue 102, Spring 2001

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    Web Page Design and Download Time [pdf]


    Statistical analysis of Web page download time measurements suggests that some relatively simple formulae can be derived to project page download times based on Web page composition and TCP connect time for a browser/server pair.

    By Jing Zhi. First published in the CMG Journal of Computer Resource Management, Issue 102, Spring 2001

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    Web Page Response Time 101 [pdf]


    The Web page response times experienced by users are affected by six principal variables: page size, minimum bandwidth, number of turns, round-trip time, server processing time, and client processing time. The paper explains these variables and their influence, and presents a formula correlating them with response time.

    By Alberto Savoia. Published in the July/August 2001 edition of STQE, the software testing and quality engineering magazine.

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    What Do You Mean: Revisiting Statistics for Web Response Time Measurements [pdf]


    If you are managing Internet service levels, improper use of traditional averages and standard deviations can mislead you, even hurt you financially.

    Using empirical data from an Internet/WAN distributed Web response time measurement system, this paper explores the relative applicability and usefulness of the geometric mean and geometric standard deviation, and introduces the lognormal distribution for quantifying the response time measurements.

    These statistics are particularly useful in the areas of Web content performance comparison and SLA monitoring of service providers such as Content Providers, CDNs, ASPs, MSPs, and Web Hosting companies.

    By David M. Ciemiewicz. CMG Intl. Conference 2001: 385-396